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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

or

o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____ to _____

Commission file number 001-32924

Green Plains Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Iowa

84-1652107

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

1811 Aksarben Drive, Omaha, NE 68106

(402) 884-8700

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

GPRE

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

    

Large accelerated filer x

Accelerated filer o

Non-accelerated filer o

Smaller reporting company o

Emerging growth company o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x

The aggregate market value of the company’s voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2021 (the last business day of the second quarter), based on the last sale price of the common stock on that date of $33.62, was approximately $1,560.7 million. For purposes of this calculation, executive officers and directors are deemed to be affiliates of the registrant.

As of February 14, 2022, there were 53,616,152 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III herein. The company intends to file such Proxy Statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the period covered by this report on Form 10-K. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Commonly Used Defined Terms

2

PART I

Item 1.

Business.

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors.

17

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

32

Item 2.

Properties.

32

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings.

32

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures.

32

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

33

Item 6.

Reserved.

34

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

35

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

50

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

51

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

51

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures.

51

Item 9B.

Other Information.

54

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

54

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.

54

Item 11.

Executive Compensation.

54

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.

54

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.

54

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services.

54

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.

55

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary.

 

63

Signatures.

64


1


Commonly Used Defined Terms

Green Plains Inc. and Subsidiaries:

Green Plains; the company

Green Plains Inc. and its subsidiaries

BioProcess Algae

BioProcess Algae LLC

FQT

Fluid Quip Technologies, LLC

Green Plains Cattle; GPCC

Green Plains Cattle Company LLC

Green Plains Commodity Management

Green Plains Commodity Management LLC

Green Plains Grain

Green Plains Grain Company LLC

Green Plains Mount Vernon; Mount Vernon

Green Plains Mount Vernon LLC

Green Plains Obion; Obion

Green Plains Obion LLC

Green Plains Partners; the partnership

Green Plains Partners LP and its subsidiaries

Green Plains Processing

Green Plains Processing LLC and its subsidiaries

Green Plains Shenandoah; Shenandoah

Green Plains Shenandoah LLC

Green Plains Trade

Green Plains Trade Group LLC

Green Plains Wood River; Wood River

Green Plains Wood River LLC

Accounting Defined Terms:

ASC

Accounting Standards Codification

EBITDA

Earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization

EPS

Earnings per share

Exchange Act

Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended

GAAP

U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

JV

Joint venture

LIBOR

London Interbank Offered Rate

Nasdaq

The Nasdaq Global Market

NMTC

New Markets Tax Credit

R&D Credits

Research and development tax credits

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

Securities Act

Securities Act of 1933, as amended

SOFR

Secured Overnight Financing Rate

Industry Defined Terms:

Bgy

Billion gallons per year

BlackRock

Funds and accounts managed by BlackRock

BTU

British Thermal Units

CARB

California Air Resources Board

The CARES Act

Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act

COVID-19

Coronavirus Disease 2019

CST

Clean Sugar Technology™

DOE

Department of Energy

DOT

U.S. Department of Transportation

E10

Gasoline blended with up to 10% ethanol by volume

E15

Gasoline blended with up to 15% ethanol by volume

E85

Gasoline blended with up to 85% ethanol by volume

EIA

U.S. Energy Information Administration

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FFV

Flexible-fuel vehicle

GNS

Grain Neutral Spirits

ILUC

Indirect land usage charge

LCFS

Low Carbon Fuel Standard

MMBTU

Million British Thermal Units

Mmg

Million gallons

Mmgy

Million gallons per year

MSC™

Maximized Stillage Coproducts produced using process technology developed by Fluid Quip Technologies LLC

MTBE

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether

MVC

Minimum volume commitment

RFS

Renewable Fuel Standard

RIN

Renewable identification number

RVO

Renewable volume obligation

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SRE

Small refinery exemption

TTB

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

U.S.

United States

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USP

United States Pharmacopeia


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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

The SEC encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so investors can better understand future prospects and make informed investment decisions. As such, forward-looking statements are included in this report or incorporated by reference to other documents filed with the SEC.

Forward-looking statements are made in accordance with safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on current expectations which involve a number of risks and uncertainties and do not relate strictly to historical or current facts, but rather to plans and objectives for future operations. These statements include words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “outlook,” “plan,” “predict,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “will” and similar words and phrases as well as statements regarding future operating or financial performance or guidance, business strategy, environment, key trends and benefits of actual or planned acquisitions.

Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied are discussed in this report under “Risk Factors” or incorporated by reference. Specifically, we may experience fluctuations in future operating results due to a number of economic conditions, including: disruption caused by health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 outbreak; competition in the ethanol industry and other industries in which we operate; commodity market risks, including those that may result from weather conditions; financial market risks; counterparty risks; risks associated with changes to government policy or regulation, including changes to tax laws; risks related to acquisitions and disposition activities and achieving anticipated results; risks associated with merchant trading; risks related to our equity method investees and other factors detailed in reports filed with the SEC. Additional risks related to Green Plains Partners LP include compliance with commercial contractual obligations, potential tax consequences related to our investment in the partnership and risks disclosed in the partnership’s SEC filings associated with the operation of the partnership as a separate, publicly traded entity.

We believe our expectations regarding future events are based on reasonable assumptions; however, these assumptions may not be accurate or account for all risks and uncertainties. Consequently, forward-looking statements are not guaranteed. Actual results may vary materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. In addition, we are not obligated and do not intend to update our forward-looking statements as a result of new information unless it is required by applicable securities laws. We caution investors not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which represent management’s views as of the date of this report or documents incorporated by reference.


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PART I

Item 1. Business.

References to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Green Plains,” or the “company” refer to Green Plains Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Overview

Green Plains is an Iowa corporation founded in June 2004 as a producer of low carbon fuels and has grown to be one of the leading corn processors in the world. We continue the transition from a commodity-processing business to a value-add agricultural technology company focusing on creating diverse, non-cyclical, higher margin products. In addition, we are currently undergoing a number of project initiatives to improve margins. Through our Total Transformation Plan discussed below to a value-add agricultural technology company, we believe we can further increase margin per gallon by producing additional value-added ingredients, such as Ultra-High Protein, while expanding corn oil yields.

In December 2020, we completed the purchase of a majority interest in FQT. The acquisition capitalizes on the core strengths of each company to develop and implement proven, value-added agriculture, food and industrial biotechnology systems and rapidly expand installation and production across Green Plains facilities, as well as offer these technologies to the biofuels industry.

Additionally, we have taken advantage of opportunities to divest certain assets in recent years to reallocate capital toward our current growth initiatives. We are focused on generating stable operating margins through our business segments and risk management strategy. We own and operate assets throughout the ethanol value chain: upstream, with grain handling and storage; through our ethanol production facilities; and downstream, with marketing and distribution services to mitigate commodity price volatility. Our other businesses leverage our supply chain, production platform and expertise.

We formed Green Plains Partners LP, a master limited partnership, to be our primary downstream storage and logistics provider since its assets are the principal method of storing and delivering the ethanol we produce. The partnership completed its initial public offering on July 1, 2015. As of December 31, 2021, we own a 48.9% limited partner interest, a 2.0% general partner interest and all of the partnership’s incentive distribution rights. The public owns the remaining 49.1% limited partner interest. The partnership is consolidated in our financial statements.

We group our business activities into the following three operating segments to manage performance:

Ethanol Production. Our ethanol production segment includes the production of ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil at 11 ethanol plants in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska and Tennessee. At capacity, our facilities are capable of processing approximately 330 million bushels of corn per year and producing approximately 1.0 billion gallons of ethanol, 2.5 million tons of distillers grains and Ultra-High Protein and 290 million pounds of industrial grade corn oil, making us one of the largest ethanol producers in North America.

Agribusiness and Energy Services. Our agribusiness and energy services segment includes grain procurement, with approximately 27.0 million bushels of grain storage capacity, and our commodity marketing business, which markets, sells and distributes ethanol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil produced at our ethanol plants. We also market ethanol for a third-party producer as well as buy and sell ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein, corn oil, grain, natural gas and other commodities in various markets.

Partnership. Our master limited partnership provides fuel storage and transportation services by owning, operating, developing and acquiring ethanol and fuel storage tanks, terminals, transportation assets and other related assets and businesses. The partnership’s assets include 29 ethanol storage facilities, four fuel terminal facilities and approximately 2,300 leased railcars.

Results for our previously reported food and ingredients segment are now included in the agribusiness and energy services segment. The food and ingredients segment had no activity in either 2021 or 2020 and minimal activity in 2019.

Risk Management and Hedging Activities

Our margins are highly dependent on commodity prices, particularly for ethanol, corn, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein, corn oil and natural gas. Since market price fluctuations among these commodities are not always correlated, ethanol production has been and may continue to be unprofitable at times. We use a variety of risk management tools and hedging

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strategies to monitor real-time operating price risk exposure at each of our operations to obtain favorable margins, when available.

We use forward contracts to sell a portion of our ethanol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil production or buy some of the corn, natural gas, or ethanol we need to partially offset commodity price volatility. We also engage in other hedging transactions involving exchange-traded futures contracts for corn, natural gas, ethanol, soybean meal, soybean oil and other agricultural commodities. The financial impact of these activities depends on the price of the commodities involved and our ability to physically receive or deliver those commodities.

Hedging arrangements expose us to risk of financial loss when the counterparty defaults on its contract or, in the case of exchange-traded contracts, when the expected differential between the price of the underlying commodity and physical commodity changes. Hedging activities can result in losses when a position is purchased in a declining market or sold in a rising market. Hedging losses may be offset by a decreased cash price for corn and natural gas and an increased cash price for ethanol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil. Depending on the circumstance, we vary the amount of hedging or other risk mitigation strategies we undertake and sometimes choose not to engage in hedging transactions at all.

Competitive Strengths

We are focused on managing commodity price risks, improving operational efficiencies and optimizing market opportunities to create an efficient platform with diversified income streams. Our competitive strengths include:

Disciplined Risk Management. Risk management is a core competency and we use a variety of risk management tools and hedging strategies in an effort to maintain a disciplined approach. Our internally developed operating margin management system allows us to monitor commodity price risk exposure at each of our operations and seeks to lock in favorable margins, when available, or if appropriate, temporarily reduce production levels during periods of compressed margins.

Technology Integration. Over our history, we have incorporated new technologies like corn oil extraction and Selective Milling Technology™ into our manufacturing processes that have enabled us to run more efficiently and improve our financial results. We are currently undergoing a number of project initiatives to improve margins. Through our Project 24 initiative, we have seen reductions in natural gas, electricity and water usage, decreasing our carbon footprint.

We are executing on our Total Transformation Plan by utilizing FQT’s MSC™ protein technology. As this technology is deployed across our platform, we expand our ability to produce value-added ingredients, such as Ultra-High Protein, while expanding corn oil yields.

The acquisition of a majority interest in FQT secures additional intellectual property rights, including those aimed at developing and implementing proven, value-added agriculture, food and industrial biotechnology systems, such as Clean Sugar Technology™ to produce low carbon dextrose for the biochemical and synthetic biology industry. In addition, we have partnered with Novozymes in an exclusive venture to produce higher purity protein and protein meals with nutritional and other feed benefits through non-mechanical methods. We also have an exclusive partnership with Hayashikane Sangyo of Japan, one of the oldest and most successful integrated aquafeed companies in the world, that broadens our access to innovative feed solutions. We continue to evaluate additional technological opportunities to expand our capabilities and product offerings in the coming years.

Proven Management Team. Our senior management team averages approximately 28 years of commodity risk management and related industry experience. We have specific expertise across all of our businesses, including plant operations and management, commodity markets and risk management, quality assurance, quality control, ingredient nutrition, marketing and innovation and ethanol marketing and distribution. Our management team’s level of operational and financial expertise is essential to successfully executing our business strategies.

Operational Excellence. Our facilities are staffed with experienced personnel who are encouraged to share operational knowledge and expertise. We continue to focus on making incremental operational improvements to enhance performance using real-time production data and systems to monitor our operations and optimize performance.

Business Strategy

We believe that the world will continue to increase its demand for protein for human consumption, driving the need to produce larger amounts of high protein feed for animals and aquaculture. With new technologies introduced in the ethanol industry, we believe that ethanol production facilities can increasingly become high-protein feed producers. We began

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operations to produce Ultra-High Protein in 2020 and have begun to deploy this technology at additional locations in an effort to capture higher co-product returns. We are striving to deploy the FQT MSC™ Ultra-High Protein process technology across our platform to take advantage of the world’s growing demand for protein feed ingredients.

As part of our transformation to a value-add agricultural technology company, we completed our first FQT MSC™ Ultra-High Protein installation at our Shenandoah biorefinery during the first quarter of 2020. Our Wood River plant began operations in October 2021. Three additional locations are under construction and expect to be operational by the middle to last half of 2022, and installation at our remaining biorefineries is expected over the course of the next several years. Through our value-added ingredients initiative, we expect to produce more Ultra-High Protein, a feed ingredient with protein concentrations of 50% or greater, further increase production of corn oil and produce other higher value products, such as post-MSC distillers grains.

We have also upgraded our York facility to include USP grade alcohol capabilities. We began pilot scale batch operations at the CST production facility at our York Innovation Center in the second quarter of 2021, which may allow for the production of both food and industrial grade dextrose to target applications in food production, renewable chemicals and synthetic biology. We anticipate modifying one or more biorefineries to include CST production capabilities to meet anticipated future customer demands.

We continue to believe ethanol could become an increasingly larger portion of the global fuel supply driven by heightened environmental concerns and energy independence goals, supported by government policies and regulations. In the 1990’s, federal law required the use of oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce vehicle emissions in cities with unhealthy levels of air pollution. Today, ethanol is the primary oxygenate used by the U.S. refining industry to meet various federal and state air emission standards. The high octane value of ethanol has also made it the primary additive used by refiners to increase octane value, which improves engine performance. Accordingly, ethanol has become a valuable blend component that comprises approximately 10% of the domestic gasoline supply with the potential to grow with higher blends and increased gasoline demand. Ethanol usage is further supported by federal government mandates under the RFS, which assigns individual refiners, blenders and importers the volume of renewable fuels they are obligated to use based on their percentage of total fuel sales. Advances in domestic corn yields have helped the U.S. ethanol industry become the lowest-cost producer of ethanol, surpassing Brazil, creating demand for U.S. ethanol worldwide.

In light of the ethanol industry’s competitive environment, we are focused on continued improvement of our low-cost ethanol production platform, reducing costs, and maximizing the value achievable from a kernel of corn by deploying new technology to diversify our product mix. Owning grain storage at or near our ethanol plants allows us to develop relationships with local producers and originate corn more effectively at a lower average cost. We purchase approximately 60% of our corn volume directly from farmers and have approximately 28 production days of storage capacity at or near our ethanol plants. We use our performance data to develop strategies that can be applied across our platform and embrace technological advances to improve operational efficiencies and yields, such as Selective Milling Technology™ and Enogen® corn enzyme technology, to lower our processing cost per gallon and increase production volumes. During 2021, we executed on our Project 24 initiative at our non-ICM plants, except our York and Atkinson plants, to reduce energy consumption and increase operational reliability at these plants.

We believe there is untapped value across our businesses and we intend to further develop and strengthen our business by identifying projects that maximize our production capabilities and lower existing costs at our production facilities. We also seek to leverage our core competencies in adjacent businesses such as aquafeeds, high protein animal feed and other commodity processing operations that maximize our operational and risk management expertise.

In August 2021, we announced a turnkey solution for the installation of FQT’s MSC™ protein technology for third party plants and our inaugural project partner, Tharaldson Ethanol, a 175 million-gallon facility in North Dakota.

In February and April 2021, as part of our carbon reduction strategy, we have committed our Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota plants to the Summit Carbon Solutions Midwest Carbon Express project to capture and store carbon dioxide produced through the fermentation process. In total, eight of our biorefineries have entered into long-term carbon offtake agreements, which will lower greenhouse gas emissions through the capturing and storing of carbon dioxide at each of the biorefineries, significantly lowering their carbon intensity. This project is anticipated to be completed in 2024.


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Recent Developments

The following is a summary of our significant recent developments. Additional information about these items can be found elsewhere in this report or in previous reports filed with the SEC.

BlackRock Note Facility

On February 9, 2021, Green Plains SPE LLC, our wholly owned subsidiary and a special purpose entity, completed a $125.0 million, 5-year mezzanine note facility with funds and accounts managed by BlackRock. The proceeds will be used initially to support the construction and deployment of FQT’s MSC™ Ultra-High Protein technology and production at the Obion, Tennessee and Mount Vernon, Indiana facilities. See further discussions in Note 12 –Debt of the financial statements.

Investment in FQT

On February 9, 2021, we announced BlackRock has invested alongside Ospraie Management and Green Plains in FQT. As part of the transaction, BlackRock acquired 2,000,000 warrants for Green Plains stock (each warrant equal to one share of stock) with a strike price of $22.00 per share, which expire on April 28, 2026. See further discussions in Note 15 –Stockholders’ Equity of the financial statements.

Carbon Sequestration Offtake Agreement

On February 18, 2021, we announced that three of our biorefineries entered into a long term carbon offtake agreement with Summit Carbon Solutions (SCS), a subsidiary of Summit Agricultural Group. The SCS carbon capture and sequestration project will create the infrastructure to transport carbon dioxide to North Dakota for deposit into geologic storage. Capturing and storing carbon is widely viewed as a key technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combatting climate change. The biorefineries attached to the pipeline can dramatically reduce the carbon footprint of their biofuels. In April 2021, we announced that an additional five of our biorefineries entered into long-term carbon offtake agreements with SCS bringing our total commitment to 658 million gallons of annual capacity, or nearly 70% of our platform.

Public Offering of Common Stock

On March 1, 2021, we completed the public offering of 8,751,500 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of Green Plains at a public offering price of $23.00 per share. This included the purchase of 1,141,500 shares of common stock by the underwriters pursuant to the full exercise of their overallotment option. This common stock offering resulted in net proceeds to us of $191.1 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and our offering expenses. See further discussions in Note 15 –Stockholders’ Equity of the financial statements.

On August 9, 2021, we completed the public offering of 5,462,500 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of Green Plains at a public offering price of $32.00 per share. This included the purchase of 712,500 shares of common stock by the underwriters pursuant to the full exercise of their overallotment option. This common stock offering resulted in net proceeds to us of $164.9 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and our offering expenses. See further discussions in Note 15 –Stockholders’ Equity of the financial statements.

The company expects to use the net proceeds from the offerings for growth investments to further accelerate our downstream development opportunities.

Public Offering of Convertible Senior Notes

On March 1, 2021, we completed the public offering of $230.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2.25% convertible notes due 2027. This included the purchase of $30.0 million notes by the underwriters pursuant to the full exercise of their overallotment option. This convertible notes offering resulted in net proceeds to us of approximately $222.5 million, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and our offering expenses.

We used approximately $156.5 million of the net proceeds of the convertible notes offering to repurchase approximately $135.7 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.125% convertible notes due 2022, in privately negotiated transactions concurrently with the convertible notes offering. We intend to use the balance of the net proceeds from the convertible notes offering to repay the 2022 notes remaining outstanding at their maturity date and for general corporate purposes. See further discussions in Note 12 –Debt of the financial statements.

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Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic and related economic repercussions have created significant volatility, uncertainty, and turmoil across numerous industries. The situation surrounding COVID-19 continues to evolve and the ultimate duration and impact of the outbreak, including resurgences and variants of the virus, remains highly uncertain and subject to change.

We continue to closely monitor the impact of COVID-19 on all aspects of our business, including how it will impact our employees, customers, suppliers, distribution channels and business partners. The pandemic resulted in business disruption and economic uncertainty which impacted our operations, supply chain and distribution channels. While the impacts of COVID-19 have been assessed, the long-term magnitude and duration of the disruption, including supply chain disruption remain uncertain. For the year ended December 31, 2021, while we did experience some supply chain issues, there has been no direct material adverse effects due to COVID-19 on our ability to maintain operations, including our financial reporting systems, our internal controls over financial reporting or our disclosure controls and procedures. We are unable to predict the full impact that COVID-19, or any resurgences and variants of the virus, will have on our future financial position and operating results due to numerous uncertainties.

For further information regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the company, please see Item 1A - Risk Factors, in this report, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Operating Segments

Ethanol Production Segment

Industry Overview. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a colorless liquid produced by fermenting carbohydrates found in a number of different types of grains, such as corn, wheat and sorghum, and other cellulosic matter found in plants. Most of the ethanol produced in the United States is made from corn, which can be handled efficiently and is in greater supply than other grains. Corn contains large quantities of carbohydrates that convert into glucose more easily than most other kinds of biomass. According to the USDA, on average, a 56 pound bushel of corn produces approximately 2.9 gallons of ethanol, 15 pounds of distillers grains and 0.7 pounds of corn oil. Outside of the United States, sugarcane is the primary feedstock used to produce ethanol.

Ethanol is a significant component of the biofuels industry, which includes all transportation fuels derived from renewable biological materials. Biofuels are an excellent oxygenate and source of octane. When added to petroleum-based transportation fuels, oxygenates reduce vehicle emissions. Ethanol is the most economical oxygenate and source of octane available on the market and its production costs are competitive with gasoline.

Ethanol Plants. We operate 11 dry mill ethanol production plants, located in six states, that produce ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, and corn oil.

Plant Location

Initial Operation or
Acquisition Date

Technology

Plant Production
Capacity (mmgy)

Atkinson, Nebraska

June 2013

Delta-T

55

Central City, Nebraska

July 2009

ICM

116

Fairmont, Minnesota

Nov. 2013

Delta-T / ICM

119

Madison, Illinois

Sept. 2016

Vogelbusch

90

Mount Vernon, Indiana

Sept. 2016

Vogelbusch

90

Obion, Tennessee (1)

Nov. 2008

ICM

120

Otter Tail, Minnesota

Mar. 2011

Delta-T / ICM

55

Shenandoah, Iowa (1)(2)

Aug. 2007

ICM

82

Superior, Iowa (1)

July 2008

Delta-T / ICM

60

Wood River, Nebraska (2)

Nov. 2013

Delta-T / ICM

121

York, Nebraska

Sept. 2016

Vogelbusch

50

Total

958

(1)We constructed these three plants; all other ethanol plants were acquired.

(2)Also produce Ultra-High Protein.

Our business is directly affected by the supply and demand for ethanol and other fuels in the markets served by our assets. Miles driven typically increase during the spring and summer months related to vacation travel, followed closely by the fall season due to holiday travel.

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Industrial-Grade Alcohol. Industrial-grade alcohol is produced by further distillation processing of the 200-proof alcohol. Further distillation removes impurities from fuel-grade ethanol to allow for production of industrial-grade alcohol which can be used as an ingredient for sanitation products. Industrial-grade alcohol is currently produced at our Wood River and York facilities, with our Wood River biorefinery producing food chemical codex (FCC) grade industrial alcohol with a portion of its capacity and our York biorefinery capable of producing USP.

Corn Feedstock and Ethanol Production. Our plants use corn as feedstock in a dry mill ethanol production process. Each of our plants requires approximately 17 million to 42 million bushels of corn annually, depending on its production capacity. The price and availability of corn are subject to significant fluctuations driven by a number of factors that affect commodity prices in general, including crop conditions, weather, governmental programs, freight costs and global demand. Ethanol producers are generally unable to pass increased corn costs to customers.

Our corn supply is obtained primarily from local markets. We use cash and forward purchase contracts with grain producers and elevators to buy corn. We maintain direct relationships with local farmers, grain elevators and cooperatives, which serve as our primary sources of grain feedstock, at 9 of our ethanol plants. This allows us to purchase much of the corn we need directly from farmers throughout the year. At two of our ethanol plants, we contract with a third-party grain originator to supply the corn necessary for ethanol production. These contracts terminate in November 2023. Each of our plants is also situated on rail lines or has other logistical solutions to access corn supplies from other regions of the country should local supplies become insufficient.

Corn is received at the plant by truck or rail then weighed and unloaded into a receiving building. Grain storage facilities are used to inventory grain that is passed through a scalper to remove rocks and debris prior to processing. The corn is then transported to a hammer mill where it is ground into flour and conveyed into a slurry tank for enzymatic processing. Water, heat and enzymes are added to convert the complex starch molecules into simpler carbohydrates. The slurry is heated to reduce the potential of microbial contamination and pumped into a liquefaction tank where additional enzymes are added. Next, the grain slurry is pumped into fermenters, where yeast, enzymes, and nutrients are added and the fermentation process is started. A beer column, within the distillation system, separates the alcohol from the spent grain mash. The alcohol is dehydrated to 200-proof alcohol and either pumped into a holding tank and blended with approximately 2% denaturant as it is pumped into finished product storage tanks, or marketed as industrial or undenatured ethanol.

Distillers Grains. The spent grain mash is pumped from the beer column into a decanter-type centrifuge for dewatering. The water, or thin stillage, is pumped from the centrifuge into an evaporator, where it is concentrated into a thick syrup. The solids, or wet cake, that exit the centrifuge are conveyed to the dryer system and dried at varying temperatures to produce distillers grains. Syrup is reapplied to the wet cake prior to drying to provide additional nutrients. Distillers grains, the principal co-product of the ethanol production process, are used as mid-protein, high-energy animal feed and marketed to the dairy, beef, swine and poultry industries.

We can produce three forms of distillers grains, depending on the number of times the solids are passed through the dryer system:

wet distillers grains, which contain approximately 65% to 70% moisture, have a shelf life of approximately three days and is therefore sold to dairies or feedlots within the immediate vicinity;

modified wet distillers grains, which is dried further to approximately 50% to 55% moisture, have a shelf life of approximately three weeks and are marketed to regional dairies and feedlots; and

dried distillers grains, which have been dried more extensively to approximately 10% to 12% moisture, have an almost indefinite shelf life and may be stored, sold and shipped to any market.

Corn Oil. Corn oil systems extract non-edible corn oil from the thin stillage evaporation process immediately before the production of distillers grains. Corn oil is produced by processing the syrup through a decanter-style, or disk-stack, centrifuge. The centrifuges separate the relatively light corn oil from the heavier components of the syrup. We extract approximately 0.8 pounds of corn oil per bushel of corn used to produce ethanol. For our locations that have deployed FQT’s MSC™ technology, we have achieved corn oil yields in excess of 1.2 pounds of corn oil per bushel and anticipate similar yields as we deploy FQT’s MSC™ Ultra-High Protein process technology across our platform. Industrial uses for corn oil include feedstock for renewable diesel, biodiesel and livestock feed additives. The syrup is blended into wet, modified wet or dried distillers grains.

Ultra-High Protein. Ultra-High Protein is fermented corn protein produced by further processing of the spent grain mash from the beer column. The spent grain is processed by the FQT MSCTM system, which contains a series of screening equipment to remove fiber from the spent grain which is sent to the distillers grain dryer. The remaining product is washed

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and clarified into a wet protein stream which is dried in a ring dryer to produce Ultra-High Protein meal. The product typically has protein concentration of 50% or greater and yields of approximately 3.5 pounds per bushel have been achieved.

Natural Gas. Depending on production parameters, our ethanol plants use approximately 20,000 to 45,000 BTUs of natural gas per gallon of production. We have service agreements to acquire the natural gas we need and transport the gas through pipelines to our plants.

Electricity. Our plants require between 0.5 and 1.1 kilowatt hours of electricity per gallon of production. Local utilities supply the necessary electricity to all of our ethanol plants.

Water. While some of our plants satisfy a majority of their water requirements from wells located on their respective properties, each plant also obtains drinkable water from local municipal water sources. Each facility either uses city water or operates a filtration system to purify the well water that is used for its operations. Local municipalities supply all of the necessary water for our plants that do not have onsite wells. Most of the water used in an ethanol plant is recycled in the production process.

Agribusiness and Energy Services Segment

Our agribusiness and energy services segment includes grain storage at our ethanol plants of approximately 25.8 million bushels, and one grain elevator with grain storage capacity of approximately 1.2 million bushels, detailed in the following table:

Facility Location

On-Site Grain Storage Capacity
(thousands of bushels)

Grain Elevators

Archer, Nebraska

1,246

Ethanol Plants

Atkinson, Nebraska

5,109

Central City, Nebraska

1,400

Fairmont, Minnesota

1,611

Madison, Illinois

1,015

Mount Vernon, Indiana

1,034

Obion, Tennessee

8,168

Otter Tail, Minnesota

628

Shenandoah, Iowa

886

Superior, Iowa

2,230

Wood River, Nebraska

3,293

York, Nebraska

347

Total

26,967

We buy bulk grain, primarily corn and soybeans, from area producers, and provide grain drying and storage services to those producers. The grain is used as feedstock for our ethanol plants or sold to grain processing companies and area livestock producers. Bulk grain commodities are traded on commodity exchanges. Inventory values are affected by changes in these markets and spreads. To mitigate risks related to market fluctuations from purchase and sale commitments of grain, as well as grain held in inventory, we enter into exchange-traded futures and options contracts that function as economic and designated accounting hedges at times.

Seasonality is present within our agribusiness operations. The fall harvest period typically results in higher handling margins and stronger financial results during the fourth quarter of each year.

Through Green Plains Trade, we market the ethanol we and a third party produce to local, regional, national and international customers. We also purchase ethanol from independent producers for pricing arbitrage. We sell to various markets under sales agreements with integrated energy companies; retailers, traders and resellers in the United States and buyers for export to Brazil, Canada, India, Europe and other international markets. Under these agreements, ethanol is priced under both fixed and indexed pricing arrangements.

Also through Green Plains Trade, we market distillers grains to local, national and international markets. The bulk of our demand is delivered to geographic regions that do not have significant local corn or distillers grains production. We sell to international markets indirectly through exporters. Access to diversified markets allows us to sell product to customers offering the highest net price.

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Our corn oil is sold primarily to renewable diesel and biodiesel plants and, to a lesser extent, feedlot and poultry markets. We transport our corn oil by truck to locations in a close proximity to our ethanol plants primarily in the southeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. We also transport corn oil by rail and barges to national markets as well as to exporters for shipment on vessels to international markets.

Through Green Plains Trade, we provide marketing services of natural gas to our ethanol plants and to other third parties including the procurement of both the pipeline capacity and natural gas. We also enhance the value by aggregating volumes at various storage facilities which can be sold to either the plants or various intermediary markets and end markets.

   

Our railcar fleet for the agribusiness and energy services segment consists of approximately 450 leased hopper cars to transport distillers grains, 70 leased hopper cars to transport corn and approximately 100 leased tank cars to transport corn oil. The initial terms of the lease contracts are for periods up to eight years and the weighted average remaining lease terms on these cars was approximately 3 years as of December 31, 2021.

Partnership Segment

Our partnership segment provides fuel storage and transportation services through (i) 29 ethanol storage facilities located at or near our 11 operational ethanol production plants and one near the prior Hopewell, VA non-operational ethanol production plant, (ii) four fuel terminal facilities located near major rail lines, and (iii) a leased railcar fleet and other transportation assets.

Transportation and Delivery. Most of our ethanol plants are situated near major highways or rail lines to ensure efficient movement. We are able to move product from our ethanol plants to bulk terminals via truck, railcar or barge. We also manage the logistics and transportation requirements of our customers to improve our fleet’s efficiency and reduce operating costs.

Deliveries within 150 miles of our plants and the partnership’s fuel terminal facilities are generally transported by truck. Deliveries to distant markets are shipped using major U.S. rail carriers that can switch cars to other major railroads, allowing our plants to ship product throughout the United States.

To meet the challenge of marketing ethanol and distillers grains to diverse market segments, several of our plants are capable of simultaneously handling more than 150 railcars. Some of our locations have large loop tracks with unit train loading capabilities for both ethanol and dried distillers grains and spurs to connect the loop to the mainline or allow the movement and storage of railcars on site.

As of December 31, 2021, the partnership’s leased railcar fleet consisted of approximately 2,300 railcars with an aggregate capacity of 69.0 mmg. We expect the partnership’s railcar volumetric capacity to fluctuate over the normal course of business as the existing railcar leases expire and we enter into or acquire new railcar leases.

To optimize the partnership’s railcar assets, we transport products other than ethanol depending on market opportunities and have used a portion of our railcar fleet to transport crude oil for third parties and to lease railcars to other users.

Terminal and Distribution Services. Ethanol is transported from the partnership’s terminals to third-party terminal racks where it is blended with gasoline and transferred to the loading rack for delivery by truck to retail gas stations. The partnership owns and operates fuel holding tanks and terminals, and provides terminal services and logistics solutions to markets that do not have efficient access to renewable fuels. The partnership owns and operates fuel terminals at four locations in four states with combined storage capacity of approximately 6.9 mmg and throughput capacity of approximately 564 mmgy. We also have 29 ethanol storage facilities located at or near our 11 operational ethanol production plants and one non-operational ethanol production plant with a combined storage capacity of approximately 25.8 mmg to support current ethanol production capacity of approximately 1.0 bgy.


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Facility Location

Storage Capacity
(thousands of gallons)

Fuel Terminals

Birmingham, Alabama - Unit Train Terminal

6,542

Other Fuel Terminal Facilities (1)

330

Ethanol Plants

Atkinson, Nebraska (2)

2,074

Central City, Nebraska

2,250

Fairmont, Minnesota

3,124

Hopewell, Virginia (3)

761

Madison, Illinois

2,855

Mount Vernon, Indiana

2,855

Obion, Tennessee

3,000

Otter Tail, Minnesota

2,000

Shenandoah, Iowa

1,524

Superior, Iowa

1,238

Wood River, Nebraska

3,124

York, Nebraska

1,100

Total

32,777

(1)Represents two fuel terminals located in Mississippi and Oklahoma.

(2)The ethanol storage facilities are located approximately 16 miles from the ethanol plant.

(3)Production at the Hopewell, Virginia facility ceased during the fourth quarter of 2018, however, the storage and terminal assets remain in operating condition.

For more information about our segments, refer to Item 7. - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this report.

Our Competition

Domestic Ethanol Competitors

We are one of the largest consolidated owners of ethanol plants in the United States. We compete with other domestic ethanol producers in a highly fragmented industry. Our competitors also include plants owned by farmers, cooperatives, oil refiners and retail fuel operators. These competitors may continue to operate their plants even when market conditions are not favorable due to the benefits realized from their other operations.

As of December 31, 2021, the top four producers accounted for approximately 41% of the domestic production capacity with production capacities ranging from 958 mmgy to 2,867 mmgy. Demand for corn from ethanol plants and other corn consumers exists in all areas and regions in which we operate. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, there were 120 operational plants in the states where we have production facilities, including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Tennessee, as of December 31, 2021. The largest concentration of operational plants is located in Iowa, Nebraska and Illinois, where 50% of all operational production capacity is located.

Foreign Ethanol Competitors

We also compete globally with production from other countries. Brazil is the second largest ethanol producer in the world after the United States. Brazil primarily produces ethanol made from sugarcane, which may be less expensive to produce than ethanol made from corn depending on feedstock prices. Under the RFS, certain parties are obligated to meet an advanced biofuel standard. In recent years, sugarcane ethanol imported from Brazil has been one of the most economical means for obligated parties to meet this standard. Any significant additional ethanol production capacity could create excess supply in world markets, resulting in lower ethanol prices throughout the world, including the United States.

Other Competition

Alternative fuels, gasoline oxygenates and ethanol production methods are continually under development. Ethanol production technologies also continue to evolve. We expect changes to occur primarily in the area of cellulosic ethanol, which is made from biomass such as switch grass or fast-growing poplar trees. Since all of our plants are designed as single-feedstock facilities, adapting our plants for a different feedstock or process system would require additional capital investments and retooling which could be cost prohibitive.


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Regulatory Matters

Government Ethanol Programs and Policies

We are sensitive to government programs and policies that affect the supply and demand for ethanol and other fuels, which in turn may impact the volume of ethanol and other fuels we handle. Over the years, various bills and amendments have been proposed in the House and Senate, which would eliminate the RFS entirely, eliminate the corn based ethanol portion of the mandate, and make it more difficult to sell fuel blends with higher levels of ethanol. We believe it is unlikely that any of these bills will become law in the current Congress. In addition, the manner in which the EPA administers the RFS and related regulations can have a significant impact on the actual amount of ethanol blended into the domestic fuel supply.

Federal mandates and state-level clean fuel programs supporting the use of renewable fuels are a significant driver of ethanol demand in the U.S. Ethanol policies are influenced by concerns for the environment, diversifying the fuel supply, and reducing the country’s dependence on foreign oil. Consumer acceptance of FFVs and higher ethanol blends in non-FFVs may be necessary before ethanol can achieve further growth in U.S. market share. In addition, expansion of clean fuel programs in other states, or a national low carbon fuel standard could increase the demand for ethanol, depending on how it is structured.

The RFS sets a floor for biofuels use in the United States. When the RFS was established in 2010, the required volume of “conventional”, or corn-based, ethanol to be blended with gasoline was to increase each year until it reached 15.0 billion gallons in 2015, which left the EPA to address existing limitations in both supply and demand. As of this filing, the EPA has proposed reducing the conventional ethanol RVOs for 2020 and 2021 to reflect lower fuel demand during the pandemic, and proposed the statutory 15 billion gallons for 2022.

According to the RFS, if mandatory renewable fuel volumes are reduced by at least 20% for two consecutive years, the EPA is required to modify, or reset, statutory volumes through 2022 – the year through which the statutorily prescribed volumes run. While conventional ethanol maintained 15 billion gallons, 2019 was the second consecutive year that the total RVO was more than 20% below the statutory volumes levels. Thus, the EPA was expected to initiate a reset rulemaking, and modify statutory volumes through 2022, and do so based on the same factors they are to use in setting the RVOs post 2022. These factors include environmental impact, domestic energy security, expected production, infrastructure impact, consumer costs, job creation, price of agricultural commodities, food prices, and rural economic development. However, in late 2019, the EPA announced it would not be moving forward with a reset rulemaking in 2020. It is unclear when or if the current EPA will propose a reset rulemaking, though they have stated an intention to propose a post 2022 set rulemaking as required by law.

Under the RFS, RINs and SREs are important tools impacting supply and demand. The EPA assigns individual refiners, blenders, and importers the volume of renewable fuels they are obligated to use in each annual RVO based on their percentage of total domestic transportation fuel sales. Obligated parties use RINs to show compliance with the RFS mandated volumes. Ethanol producers assign RINs to renewable fuels and the RINs are detached when the renewable fuel is blended with transportation fuel domestically. Market participants can trade the detached RINs in the open market. The market price of detached RINs can affect the price of ethanol in certain markets and can influence purchasing decisions by obligated parties. As it relates to SREs, a small refinery is defined as one that processes fewer than 75,000 barrels of petroleum per day. Small refineries can petition the EPA for a SRE which, if approved, waives their portion of the annual RVO requirements. The EPA, through consultation with the DOE and the USDA, can grant them a full or partial waiver, or deny it outright within 90 days of submittal. The EPA granted significantly more of these waivers for 2016, 2017 and 2018 than they had in the past, totaling 790 mmg of waived requirements for the 2016 compliance year, 1.82 billion gallons for 2017 and 1.43 billion gallons for 2018. In doing so, the EPA effectively reduced the RFS mandated volumes for those compliance years by those amounts respectively, and as a result, RIN values declined significantly. In the waning days of the Trump administration, the EPA approved three additional SREs, reversing one denial from 2018 and granting two from 2019. A total of 88 SREs were granted under the Trump Administration, totaling 4.3 billion gallons of potential blending demand erased. The EPA, under the current administration, reversed the three SREs issued in the final weeks of the previous administration, and in the RVO rulemaking they proposed denying all pending SREs. There are multiple legal challenges to how the EPA has handled SREs and RFS rulemakings.

The One-Pound Waiver that was extended in May 2019 to allow E15 to be sold year-round to all vehicles model year 2001 and newer was challenged in an action filed in Federal District Court for the D.C. Circuit. On July 2, 2021, the Circuit Court vacated the EPA’s rule so the future of summertime, defined as June 1 to September 15, sales of E15 to non-FFVs is uncertain. The Supreme Court declined to hear a challenge to this ruling. As of this filing E15 is sold year-round in approximately 30 states.

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In October 2019, the White House directed the USDA and EPA to move forward with rulemaking to expand access to higher blends of biofuels. This includes funding for infrastructure, labeling changes and allowing E15 to be sold through E10 infrastructure. The USDA rolled out the Higher Blend Infrastructure Incentive Program in the summer of 2020, providing competitive grants to fuel terminals and retailers for installing equipment for dispensing higher blends of ethanol and biodiesel. In December 2021, the USDA announced it would administer another infrastructure grant program. Congress is considering legislation that would provide for an additional $1 billion in USDA grants for biofuel infrastructure from 2022 to 2031.

To respond to the COVID-19 health crisis and attempt to offset the subsequent economic damage, Congress passed multiple relief measures, most notably the CARES Act in March 2020, which created and funded multiple programs that have impacted our industry. The USDA was given additional resources for the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and they are using those funds to provide direct payments to farmers, including corn farmers from whom we purchase most of our feedstock for ethanol production. Similar to the trade aid payments made by the USDA over the past two years, this cash injection for farmers could cause them to delay marketing decisions and increase the price we have to pay to purchase corn. The CARES Act also allowed for certain net operating loss carrybacks, which has allowed us to receive certain tax refunds. In December 2020, Congress passed and then President Trump signed into law an annual spending package coupled with another COVID relief bill which included additional funds for the Secretary of Agriculture to distribute to those impacted by the pandemic. The language of the bill specifically includes biofuels producers as eligible for some of this aid, and in March of 2021, the USDA indicated that biofuels would be able to apply for a portion of these funds in a forthcoming rulemaking. On June 15, 2021, the USDA indicated that $700 million would be made available to biofuels producers, and in December 2021, they released details for the program, specifying that domestic biofuel producers must apply for market losses due to COVID by February 11, 2022, with payments announced by March 12, 2022. It is not possible to predict the amount we would receive, if any, from this program.

The CARES Act provided a tax exclusion on the shipment of undenatured ethanol for use in manufacturing hand sanitizer, a key ingredient of which is undenatured ethanol of specific grades. The FDA announced that it is ending, effective December 31, 2021, the expanded guidance, which allowed for more denaturants to be used in ethanol intended for hand sanitizer production, and expanded the grades of ethanol for the duration of the public health crisis.

See further discussion in Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Environmental and Other Regulation

Our ethanol production, agribusiness and energy services, and partnership segment activities are subject to various and extensive environmental and other regulations. We obtain and maintain various environmental permits to operate our plants and other facilities. Ethanol production involves the emission of various airborne pollutants, including particulate, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds. In 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court classified carbon dioxide as an air pollutant under the Clean Air Act in a case seeking to require the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide in vehicle emissions, which the EPA later addressed in the RFS. While some of our plants operate as grandfathered at their current authorized capacity under the RFS mandate, expansion above these capacities at grandfathered plants will require a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from a 2005 baseline measurement.

In addition, various states and countries are adopting regulatory schemes similar to what California has adopted. Specifically, CARB adopted LCFS requiring a 10% reduction in average carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel transportation fuels in California from 2010 to 2020.

We employ maintenance and operations personnel at each of our plants. In addition to the attention we place on the health and safety of our employees, the operations of our facilities are regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

See further discussion in Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Exclusive Partnerships and Joint Ventures

In 2021, we formed a 50/50 JV with Tharaldson Ethanol, which will own the FQT MSC™ Ultra-High Protein technology assets added adjacent to the Tharaldson Ethanol plant in North Dakota to produce Ultra-High Protein.

In 2020, we acquired a majority interest in FQT. The acquisition capitalizes on the core strengths of each company to develop and implement proven, value-added agriculture, food and industrial biotechnology systems and rapidly expand

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installation and production of FQT’s MSC™ Ultra-High Protein technology across our facilities, as well as offer these technologies to partnering biofuel facilities.

In 2020, we formed an exclusive partnership with Hayashikane Sangyo of Japan, one of the oldest and most successful integrated aquafeed companies in the world. The companies have come together to deliver innovative solutions for fast-growing global aquaculture markets using technology developed and successfully deployed in Japanese production. These technologies complement our FQT MSC™ Ultra-High Protein production technology.

In 2019, we joined with Novozymes in an exclusive venture to produce higher purity protein and protein meals with nutritional and other feed benefits through non-mechanical methods.

We are the majority owner of the BioProcess Algae joint venture, which was formed in 2008. The joint venture is focused on growing algae in commercially viable quantities using feedstocks that are created as part of our ethanol production process. We are currently focused on animal nutrition, using proprietary technology to customize specific products, based on proven benefits, for relevant markets.

Human Capital Resources

The attraction, retention and development of employees is critical to our success. We accomplish this, in part, by our competitive compensation practices, training initiatives, and growth opportunities within the company. On December 31, 2021, we had 859 full-time, part-time, temporary and seasonal employees, including 136 employees at our corporate office in Omaha, Nebraska.

Workforce Health and Safety

We take workplace safety very seriously and our robust safety program means that we are constantly evaluating our safety protocols in an effort to keep our facilities safe for our workers.

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we have remained focused on protecting the health and safety of our team members while meeting the needs of our customers. We were an early adopter of enhanced safety measures and practices across our facilities to protect employee health and safety and ensure a reliable supply of products to our customers. This included the purchasing of masks, temperature check machines and hand sanitizer at all locations. In 2020, we donated industrial-grade alcohol, which can be used as an ingredient for sanitation products, to both the State of Nebraska and the State of Iowa, as well as the University of Nebraska.

We monitor and track the impact of the pandemic on our teammates and within our operations, and proactively modify or adopt new practices to promote their health and safety.

Compensation and Benefits

 

As part of our compensation philosophy, we believe that we must offer and maintain market competitive compensation and benefit programs for our employees in order to attract and retain superior talent. In addition to competitive base wages, additional programs include the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, a company matched 401(k) Plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave, and employee assistance programs.

 

Diversity and Inclusion

 

We are committed to our continued efforts to increase diversity and foster an inclusive work environment that supports the workforce and the communities we serve. We recruit the best qualified employees regardless of gender, ethnicity or other protected traits and it is our policy to fully comply with all laws applicable to discrimination in the workplace.

Available Information

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are available on our website at www.gpreinc.com shortly after we file or furnish the information with the SEC. You can also find the charters of our audit, compensation and nominating committees, as well as our code of ethics in the corporate governance section of our website. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC. For more information on our partnership, please visit www.greenplainspartners.com. Alternatively, investors may visit the SEC website at www.sec.gov to access our reports, proxy and information statements filed with the SEC.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

We operate in an industry that has numerous risks, many of which are beyond our control or are driven by factors that cannot always be predicted. Investors should carefully consider all of the risk factors in conjunction with the other information included in this report as our financial results and condition or market value could be adversely affected if any of these risks were to occur.

Risks Related to our Business and Industry

Our margins are dependent on managing the spread between the price of corn, natural gas, ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil.

Our operating results are highly sensitive to the spread between the corn and natural gas we purchase, and the ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil we sell. Price and supply are subject to various market forces, such as weather, domestic and global demand, shortages, export prices, crude oil prices, currency valuations and government policies in the United States and around the world, over which we have no control. Price volatility of these commodities may cause our operating results to fluctuate substantially. Increases in corn or natural gas prices or decreases in ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil prices may make it unprofitable to operate. No assurance can be given that we will purchase corn and natural gas or sell ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil at or near prices which would provide us with positive margins. Consequently, our results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected by increases in corn or natural gas prices or decreases in ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil prices.

We continuously monitor the margins at our ethanol plants using a variety of risk management tools and hedging strategies when appropriate. In recent years, the spread between ethanol and corn prices has fluctuated widely, narrowed significantly and been negative at times. Fluctuations are likely to continue. A sustained narrow spread or further reduction in the spread between ethanol and corn prices as a result of increased corn prices or decreased ethanol prices, would adversely affect our results of operations and financial position. Should our combined revenue from ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil fall below our cost of production, we could decide to slow or suspend production at some or all of our ethanol plants, which also could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

The products we buy and sell are subject to price volatility and uncertainty.

Our operating results are highly sensitive to commodity prices.

Corn. We are generally unable to pass increased corn costs to our customers since ethanol competes with other fuels. We have seen considerable price volatility in corn prices not experienced in recent years. At certain corn prices, ethanol may be uneconomical to produce. Ethanol plants, livestock industries and other corn-consuming enterprises put significant price pressure on local corn markets. In addition, local corn supplies and prices could be adversely affected by, but not limited to, prices for alternative crops, increasing input costs, changes in government policies, shifts in global markets, supply or demand, global political or economic issues, or damaging growing conditions, such as plant disease or adverse weather, including drought.

Ethanol. Our revenues are dependent on market prices for ethanol which can be volatile as a result of a number of factors, including but not limited to: the price and availability of competing fuels; the overall supply and demand for ethanol and corn; the price of gasoline, crude oil and corn; global political or economic issues and government policies.

Ethanol is marketed as a fuel additive that reduces vehicle emissions, an economical source of octanes and, to a lesser extent, a gasoline substitute. Consequently, gasoline supply and demand affect the price of ethanol. Should gasoline prices or demand decrease significantly, our results of operations could be materially impacted.

Ethanol imports also affect domestic supply and demand. Imported ethanol is not subject to an import tariff and, under the RFS, sugarcane ethanol from Brazil is one of the most economical means for obligated parties to meet the advanced biofuel standard.

Industrial-grade alcohol is produced by further distillation processing of 200-proof alcohol. Further distillation removes impurities which allows it to be used as an ingredient for sanitation products. Should industrial-grade alcohol prices or demand decrease significantly, or competition and supply increase, our results of operations could be negatively impacted.

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Distillers Grains. Increased U.S. dry mill ethanol production has resulted in increased distillers grains production. Should this trend continue, distillers grains prices could fall unless demand increases or other market sources are found. The price of distillers grains has historically been correlated with the price of corn. Occasionally, the price of distillers grains will lag behind fluctuations in corn or other feedstock prices, lowering our cost recovery percentage. Additionally, exports of distiller grains could be impacted by the enactment of foreign policy.

Distillers grains compete with other protein-based animal feed products. Downward pressure on other commodity prices, such as corn and soybeans, will generally cause the price of competing animal feed products to decline, resulting in downward pressure on the price of distillers grains.

Natural Gas. The price and availability of natural gas are subject to volatile market conditions. These market conditions are often affected by factors beyond our control, such as weather, drilling economics, overall economic conditions and government regulations. Significant disruptions in natural gas supply could impair our ability to produce ethanol. Furthermore, increases in natural gas prices or changes in our cost relative to our competitors cannot be passed on to our customers, which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

Corn Oil. Industrial corn oil is generally marketed as a renewable diesel and biodiesel feedstock; therefore, the price of corn oil is affected by demand for renewable diesel and biodiesel. Expanded profitability in the renewable diesel and biodiesel industry due to the extended blending tax credit and low carbon fuels standards could impact corn oil demand. In general, corn oil prices follow the prices of heating oil and soybean oil. Decreases in the price of or demand for corn oil could have an adverse impact on our business and profitability.

Ultra High Protein. Our Ultra-High Protein has unique nutritional advantages and a higher protein concentration than soybean meal and can be included in a variety of feed rations in the pet, dairy, swine, poultry and aquaculture industries. As a value-added feed ingredient, quality control is imperative. Demand for feed products and pricing pressure from competing feed products may result in downward pressure on the price of Ultra-High Protein. Reliable production of Ultra-High Protein from both consistent operations of the biorefinery as well as the FQT MSC™ technology is necessary to produce anticipated volumes. Inconsistency in volumes, quality or downward pressure on prices could result in adverse impact on our business and profitability.

We may be affected by or unable to fulfill our total transformation strategies.

In May 2018, we announced that we were evaluating the performance of our entire portfolio of assets and businesses. As part of that process, during the fourth quarter of 2018, we sold three ethanol plants, permanently closed one ethanol plant and sold Fleischmann’s Vinegar Company, Inc. Furthermore, we sold our 50% interest in JGP Energy Partners during the fourth quarter of 2019. We sold a 50% interest in GPCC during the third quarter of 2019 and the remaining 50% interest in GPCC during the fourth quarter of 2020. In December 2020, we sold the Hereford, Texas ethanol plant and in March 2021, we sold our Ord, Nebraska ethanol plant.

As we continue to evaluate our portfolio, we may sell additional assets or businesses or exit particular markets that are no longer a strategic fit or no longer meet their growth or profitability targets. Depending on the nature of the assets sold, our profitability may be impacted by lost operating income or cash flows from such businesses. In addition, divestitures we complete may not yield the targeted improvements in our business and may divert management’s attention from our day-to-day operations.

We also undertook a number of project initiatives to improve margins, including our Project 24 initiative and Total Transformation Plan focused on expanding the products and value we can extract from a kernel of corn. The Ultra-High Protein strategy includes substantial construction projects and cost to deploy FQT’s MSC™ protein systems at our biorefineries.

We may not achieve our construction goals on time or our budget, we may not achieve the operating yields we project, we may not achieve product market sales, margins, or pricing we project, and our operating cost goals may not be achieved due to a variety of factors. Our failure to achieve any of these intended constructive, yield, sales, margin, pricing, or financial results associated with our total transformation strategies could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our risk management and commodity trading strategies could be ineffective and expose us to decreased liquidity.

 

As market conditions warrant, we use forward contracts to sell some of our ethanol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein, and corn oil, or buy some of the corn, and natural gas we need to partially offset commodity price volatility. We also engage in other hedging transactions and other commodity trading involving exchange-traded futures contracts for corn, natural gas,

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ethanol, soybean meal, soybean oil and other agricultural commodities. The financial impact of these activities depends on the price of the commodities involved and/or our ability to physically receive or deliver the commodities.

 

Hedging arrangements expose us to risk of financial loss when the counterparty defaults on its contract or, in the case of exchange-traded contracts, when the expected differential between the price of the underlying and physical commodity changes. Hedging activities can result in losses when a position is purchased in a declining market or sold in a rising market. Hedging losses may be offset by a decreased cash price for corn, and natural gas and an increased cash price for ethanol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil. We vary the amount of hedging and other risk mitigation strategies we undertake and sometimes choose not to engage in hedging transactions at all. We cannot provide assurance that our risk management and commodity trading strategies and decisions will be profitable or effectively offset commodity price volatility. If they are not, our results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.

 

The use of derivative financial instruments frequently involves cash deposits with brokers, or margin calls. Sudden changes in commodity prices may require additional cash deposits immediately. Depending on our open derivative positions, we may need additional liquidity with little advance notice to cover margin calls. While we continuously monitor our exposure to margin calls, we cannot guarantee we will be able to maintain adequate liquidity to cover margin calls in the future.

Government mandates affecting ethanol could change and impact the ethanol market.

Under the provisions of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, as amended, Congress expanded the RFS. The RFS mandates the minimum volume of renewable fuels that must be blended into the transportation fuel supply each year which affects the domestic market for ethanol. Each year the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supposed to undertake rulemaking to set the RVO for the following year, though at times months or years pass without a finalized RVO. Further, the EPA has the authority to waive the requirements, in whole or in part, if there is inadequate domestic renewable fuel supply or the requirement severely harms the economy or the environment. After 2022, volumes shall be determined by the EPA in coordination with the Secretaries of Energy and Agriculture, taking into account such factors as impact on environment, energy security, future rates of production, cost to consumers, infrastructure, and other factors such as impact on commodity prices, job creation, rural economic development, or impact on food prices.

According to the RFS, if mandatory renewable fuel volumes are reduced by at least 20% for two consecutive years, the EPA is required to modify, or reset, statutory volumes through 2022; the year through which the statutorily prescribed volumes run. While conventional ethanol maintained 15 billion gallons, 2019 was the second consecutive year that the total RVO was more than 20% below the statutory volumes levels. Thus, the EPA was expected to initiate a reset rulemaking, and modify statutory volumes through 2022, and do so based on the same factors they are to use in setting the RVOs post-2022. However, on December 19, 2019, the EPA announced it would not be moving forward with a reset rulemaking. It is unclear when or if they will propose a reset rulemaking. The EPA has stated an intention to propose a post-2022 ‘set’ rulemaking as required by statute.

Volumes can also be impacted as small refineries can petition the EPA for an SRE which, if approved, waives their portion of the annual RVO requirements. The EPA, through consultation with the DOE and the USDA, can grant them a full or partial waiver, or deny it outright within 90 days of submittal. A small refinery is defined as one that processes fewer than 75,000 barrels of petroleum per day.



Our operations could be adversely impacted by legislation, administration actions, EPA actions, or lawsuits that may reduce the RFS mandated volumes of conventional ethanol and other biofuels through the annual RVO, the 2022 set rulemaking, the point of obligation for blending, or SREs. A recent Supreme Court ruling held that the small refineries can continue to apply for an extension of their waivers from the RFS, even if they have not been awarded a continuous string of exemptions, though the EPA has proposed denying all SRE applications. A recent D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals ruling held that the EPA overstepped its authority in extending the one pound Reid Vapor Pressure waiver for 10% ethanol blends to 15% ethanol blends in the summer, effectively limiting summertime sales of ethanol blends above 10% to FFVs from June 1 to September 15 each year.

Similarly, should federal mandates regarding oxygenated gasoline be repealed, the market for domestic ethanol could be adversely impacted. Economic incentives to blend based on the relative value of gasoline versus ethanol, taking into consideration the octane value of ethanol, environmental requirements and the RFS mandate, may affect future demand. A significant increase in supply beyond the RFS mandate could have an adverse impact on ethanol prices. Moreover, changes to RFS could negatively impact the price of ethanol or cause imported sugarcane ethanol to become more economical than domestic ethanol. Likewise, national, state and regional LCFS like that of California, Oregon, Brazil or Canada could be favorable or harmful to conventional ethanol, depending on how the regulations are crafted, enforced and modified.



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  Future demand may be influenced by economic incentives to blend based on the relative value of gasoline versus ethanol, taking into consideration the octane value of ethanol, environmental requirements and the value of RFS credits or RINs. A significant increase in supply beyond the RFS mandate could have an adverse impact on ethanol prices. Moreover, any changes to RFS, whether by legislation, EPA action or lawsuit, originating from issues associated with the market price of RINs could negatively impact the demand for ethanol, discretionary blending of ethanol and/or the price of ethanol. Recent actions by the EPA to grant SREs without accounting for the lost gallons, for example, resulted in lower RIN prices. Similarly, proposals from the current EPA to reduce annual RVO levels could also lead to lower RIN prices.

To the extent federal or state laws or regulations are modified and/or enacted, it may result in the demand for ethanol being reduced, which could negatively and materially affect our financial performance.

Future demand for ethanol is uncertain and changes in public perception, consumer acceptance and overall consumer demand for transportation fuel could affect demand.

While many trade groups, academics and government agencies support ethanol as a fuel additive that promotes a cleaner environment, others claim ethanol production consumes considerably more energy, emits more greenhouse gases than other fuels and depletes water resources. While we do not agree, some studies suggest ethanol produced from corn is less efficient than ethanol produced from switch grass or wheat grain. Others claim corn-based ethanol negatively impacts consumers by causing the prices of meat and other food derived from corn-consuming livestock to increase. Ethanol critics also contend the industry redirects corn supplies from international food markets to domestic fuel markets, and contributes to land use change domestically and abroad.

There are limited markets for ethanol beyond the federal mandates. We believe further consumer acceptance of E15 and E85 fuels may be necessary before ethanol can achieve significant market share growth. Discretionary and E85 blending are important secondary markets. Discretionary blending is often determined by the price of ethanol relative to gasoline, and availability to consumers. When discretionary blending is financially unattractive, the demand for ethanol may be reduced.

Demand for ethanol is also affected by overall demand for transportation fuel, which is affected by cost, number of miles traveled and vehicle fuel economy. Miles traveled typically increases during the spring and summer months related to vacation travel, followed closely behind the fall season due to holiday travel. Global events, such as COVID-19, have greatly decreased miles traveled and in turn, the demand for ethanol. Consumer demand for gasoline may be impacted by emerging transportation trends, such as electric vehicles or ride sharing. In January 2021, General Motors announced a target date of 2035 for phasing out the production of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. Similarly, Nissan has stated that their entire fleet will be electric vehicles by the early 2030s. These announcements coincide with pledges to ban the sale of internal combustion engines in countries such as Japan and the United Kingdom by 2035, as well as a statewide ban in California. While aspirational, if realized, these bans would accelerate the decline of liquid fuel demand and by extension demand for ethanol, biodiesel and renewable diesel.

Additionally, factors such as over-supply of ethanol, which has been the case for some time, could continue to negatively impact our business. Reduced demand for ethanol may depress the value of our products, erode its margins, and reduce our ability to generate revenue or operate profitably.

Our business is directly affected by the supply and demand for ethanol and other fuels in the markets served by our assets. Reduced demand for ethanol, regardless of cause, may erode our margins and reduce our ability to generate revenue and operate profitably.

In the past, we have had operating losses and could incur future operating losses.

In the last five years, we incurred operating losses during certain quarters and could incur operating losses in the future that are substantial. Although we have had periods of sustained profitability, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis, which could impact the market price of our common stock and the value of your investment. In addition, periods of sustained losses create uncertainty as to whether some or all of our deferred tax assets will be realizable in the future.

If the United States were to withdraw from or materially modify certain international trade agreements, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Ethanol and other products that we produce are or have been exported to Canada, Mexico, Brazil, China and other countries. The previous administration expressed antipathy towards certain existing international trade agreements and has significantly increased tariffs on goods imported into the United States, which in turn has led to retaliatory actions on U.S.

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exports. The outcome of trade negotiations or lack thereof, has had and/or may continue to have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to access the partnership’s terminals adjacent to our ethanol plants could cause disruptions in our operations and adversely affect our production levels, profitability and needed capital expenditures.

We are party to the storage and throughput agreement with our partnership, under which we access the storage and throughput services offered by the partnership. In the event of a default by either party under that agreement, our ability to throughput our ethanol may be disrupted, which in turn could adversely affect our production levels, operating expenses, profitability and our need for capital expenditures for alternative throughput arrangements.

Our debt exposes us to numerous risks that could have significant consequences to our shareholders.

Risks related to the level of debt we have include: (1) requiring a sizeable portion of cash to be dedicated for debt service, reducing the availability of cash flow for working capital, capital expenditures, and other general business activities and limiting our ability to invest in new growth opportunities; (2) limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other activities; (3) limiting our flexibility to plan for or react to changes in the businesses and industries in which we operate; (4) increasing our vulnerability to general and industry-specific adverse economic conditions; (5) being at a competitive disadvantage against less leveraged competitors; and (6) being vulnerable to increases in prevailing interest rates.

A portion of our debt bears interest at variable rates, which creates exposure to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations at variable rates would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, decreasing net income.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations and to fund our planned capital expenditures, acquisitions and other ongoing liquidity needs depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions as well as certain financial, business and other factors which are beyond our control. There can be no assurance that we will maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities in an amount sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to seek additional capital or restructure our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations.

We are required to comply with a number of covenants under our existing loan agreements that could hinder our growth.

We are required to maintain specified financial ratios, including minimum cash flow coverage, working capital and tangible net worth under certain loan agreements. A breach of these covenants could result in default, and if such default is not cured or waived, our lenders could accelerate our debt and declare it immediately due and payable. If this occurs, we may not be able to repay or borrow sufficient funds to refinance the debt. Even if financing is available, it may not be on acceptable terms. No assurance can be given that our future operating results will be sufficient to comply with these covenants or remedy default.

In the past, we have received waivers from our lenders for failure to meet certain financial covenants and amended our loan agreements to change these covenants. In the event we are unable to comply with these covenants in the future, we cannot provide assurance that we will be able to obtain the necessary waivers or amend our loan agreements to prevent default. Under our convertible senior notes, default on any loan in excess of $20.0 million could result in the notes being declared due and payable, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to operate.

We operate in a capital intensive business and rely on cash generated from operations and external financing, which could be limited.

Increased commodity prices could increase liquidity requirements. Our operating cash flow is dependent on overall commodity market conditions as well as our ability to operate profitably. In addition, we may need to raise additional financing to fund growth. In some market environments, we may have limited access to incremental financing, which could defer or cancel growth projects, reduce business activity or cause us to default on our existing debt agreements if we are unable to meet our payment schedules. These events could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial position.

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Our ability to repay current and anticipated future debt will depend on our financial and operating performance and successful implementation of our business strategies. Our financial and operational performance will depend on numerous factors including prevailing economic conditions, commodity prices, and financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If we cannot repay, refinance or extend our current debt at scheduled maturity dates, we could be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, restructure our debt or seek additional capital. If we are unable to restructure our debt or raise funds, our operations and growth plans could be harmed and the value of our stock could be significantly reduced.

Disruptions in the credit market could limit our access to capital.

We may need additional capital to fund our growth or other business activities in the future. The cost of capital under our existing or future financing arrangements could increase and affect our ability to trade with various commercial counterparties or cause our counterparties to require additional forms of credit support. If capital markets are disrupted, we may not be able to access capital at all or capital may only be available under less favorable terms.

We are required to continue to make payments to the partnership to the minimum volume commitment regardless of our production levels.

We are party to the storage and throughput agreement with our partnership, under which we are obligated to pay a minimum volume commitment regardless of whether or not we operate. We may not run our plants at volumes sufficient enough to cover the MVC resulting in payments being made to the partnership. In times of sustained negative margins, our volumes may be insufficient to recover these MVC payments in the following four quarters as outlined in the partnership agreement.

Our ability to maintain the required regulatory permits or manage changes in environmental, safety and TTB regulations is essential to successfully operating our plants.

Our plants are subject to extensive air, water, environmental and TTB regulations. Our production facilities involve the emission of various airborne pollutants, including particulate, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds, which requires numerous environmental permits to operate our plants. Governing state agencies could impose costly conditions or restrictions that are detrimental to our profitability and have a material adverse effect on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

Environmental laws and regulations at the federal and state level are subject to change. These changes can also be made retroactively. It is possible that more stringent federal or state environmental rules or regulations could be adopted, which could increase our operating costs and expenses. Consequently, even though we currently have the proper permits, we may be required to invest or spend considerable resources in order to comply with future environmental regulations. Furthermore, ongoing plant operations, which are governed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, may change in a way that increases the cost of plant operations. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

Part of our business is regulated by environmental laws and regulations governing the labeling, use, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials. Since we handle and use hazardous substances, changes in environmental requirements or an unanticipated significant adverse environmental event could have a negative impact on our business. While we strive to comply with all environmental requirements, we cannot provide assurance that we have been in compliance at all times or will not incur material costs or liabilities in connection with these requirements. Private parties, including current and former employees, could bring personal injury or other claims against us due to the presence of hazardous substances. We are also exposed to residual risk by our land and facilities which may have environmental liabilities from prior use. Changes in environmental regulations may require us to modify existing plant and processing facilities, which could significantly increase our cost of operations.

TTB regulations apply when producing our undenatured ethanol. These regulations carry substantial penalties for non-compliance and therefore any non-compliance may adversely affect our financial operations or adversely impact our ability to produce undenatured ethanol.

Any inability to generate or obtain RINs could adversely affect our operating margins.

Nearly all of our ethanol production is sold with RINs that are used by our customers to comply with the RFS. Should our production not meet the EPA’s requirements for RIN generation in the future, we would need to purchase RINs in the open market or sell our ethanol at lower prices to compensate for the absence of RINs. The price of RINs depends on a variety of factors, including the availability of qualifying biofuels and RINs for purchase, production levels of transportation fuel and percentage mix of ethanol with other fuels, and cannot be predicted. Failure to obtain sufficient RINs or reliance on

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invalid RINs could subject us to fines and penalties imposed by the EPA which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

As we trade ethanol acquired from third-parties, should it be discovered the RINs associated with the ethanol we purchased are invalid, albeit unknowingly, we could be subject to substantial penalties if we are assessed the maximum amount allowed by law. Based on EPA penalties assessed on RINS violations in the past few years, in the event of a violation, the EPA could assess penalties, which could have an adverse impact on our profitability.

Compliance with evolving environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, particularly those related to climate change, could be costly.

Our plants emit carbon dioxide as a by-product of ethanol production. In February 2010, the EPA released its final regulations on RFS, grandfathering our plants at their current authorized capacity. While some of our plants have received efficient producer status and no longer rely on grandfathered status, for those still reliant upon it, expansion above these levels will require a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from the 2005 baseline measurement. Separately, CARB adopted a LCFS that took effect in January 2013, which requires a 10% reduction in the average carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel transportation fuels from 2010 to 2020. An ILUC component is included in the greenhouse gas emission calculation, which may have an adverse impact on the market for corn-based ethanol in California.

To expand our production capacity, federal and state regulations may require us to obtain additional permits, achieve EPA’s efficient producer status under the pathway petition program, install advanced technology or reduce drying distillers grains. Compliance with future laws or regulations to decrease carbon dioxide could be costly and may prevent us from operating our plants as profitably, which may have an adverse impact on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

We may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures or partnerships.

We have increased the size and diversity of our operations through mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures or partnerships and intend to continue exploring potential growth opportunities. Acquisitions involve numerous risks that could harm our business, including: (1) difficulties integrating the operations, technologies, products, existing contracts, accounting processes and personnel and realizing anticipated synergies of the combined business; (2) risks relating to environmental hazards on purchased sites; (3) risks relating to developing the necessary infrastructure for facilities or acquired sites, including access to rail networks; (4) difficulties supporting and transitioning customers; (5) diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations; (6) the purchase price exceeding the value realized; (7) risks of entering new markets or areas outside of our core competencies; (8) potential loss of key employees, customers and strategic alliances from our existing or acquired business; (9) unanticipated problems or underlying liabilities; and (10) inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition and development costs.

The anticipated benefits of these transactions may not be fully realized or could take longer to realize than expected.

We have also pursued growth through joint ventures or partnerships, which typically involve restrictions on actions that the partnership or joint venture may take without the approval of the partners. These provisions could limit our ability to manage the partnership or joint venture in a manner that serves our best interests.

Future acquisitions may involve issuing equity as payment or to finance the business or assets, which could dilute your ownership interest. Furthermore, additional debt may be necessary to complete these transactions, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. Failure to adequately address the risks associated with acquisitions or joint ventures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Future events could result in impairment of long-lived assets, which may result in charges that adversely affect our results of operations.

Long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, goodwill and equity method investments, are evaluated for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Our impairment evaluations are sensitive to changes in key assumptions used in our analysis and may require use of financial estimates of future cash flows. Application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. We may be required to recognize impairments of long-lived assets based on future economic factors such as unfavorable changes in estimated future undiscounted cash flows of an asset group.

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Global competition could affect our profitability.

 

We compete with producers in the United States and abroad. Depending on feedstock, labor and other production costs, producers in other countries, such as Brazil, may be able to produce ethanol cheaper than we can. Under the RFS, certain parties are obligated to meet an advanced biofuel standard. In recent years, sugarcane ethanol imported from Brazil has been one of the most economical means for obligated parties to meet this standard. While transportation costs, infrastructure constraints and demand may temper the impact of ethanol imports, foreign competition remains a risk to our business. Moreover, significant additional foreign ethanol production could create excess supply, which could result in lower ethanol prices throughout the world, including the United States. Any penetration of ethanol imports into the domestic market may have a material adverse effect on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

International activities such as boycotts, embargoes, product rejection, trade policies and compliance matters, may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Government actions abroad can have a significant impact on our business. In 2021, we exported 23% of our ethanol production. In 2013, the European Union imposed a five-year tariff of $83.33 per metric ton on U.S. ethanol to discourage foreign competition. Effective January 1, 2017, China indicated its intention to raise its 5% tariff on U.S. and Brazil fuel ethanol to 30%. On April 1, 2018, China raised their tariff rate to 45%, and later raised it further to 70%. In January 2020, the two countries announced a “Phase I” trade deal with agricultural commodity purchase commitments, including ethanol; however, these ethanol tariffs have not been reduced or eliminated.

Although the ethanol export markets are affected by competition from other ethanol exporters, particularly Brazil, and in spite of the actions by China, we believe exports will remain active going forward. On September 1, 2017, Brazil’s Chamber of Foreign Trade, or CAMEX, issued an official written resolution, imposing a 20% tariff on U.S. ethanol imports in excess of 150 million liters, or 39.6 million gallons per quarter. The ruling was extended for a year in 2019, and again by 90 days in 2020, but was allowed to lapse in December 2020, and a 20% duty now applies to all U.S. ethanol imports into Brazil.

In January 2016, China’s Ministry of Commerce initiated an anti-dumping investigation into U.S.-produced dried distillers grains exported to China. In January of 2017, the Ministry of Commerce of China announced it increased anti-dumping duties on U.S. distillers grains, ranging from 42.2% to 53.7%.

With more tariffs and reduced exports, the value of our products may be affected, which could have a negative impact on our profitability. Additionally, tariffs on U.S. ethanol may lead to further industry over-supply and reduce our profitability. Moreover, the America First trade position has caused more countries to toughen their positions on U.S. imports.

The ability or willingness of OPEC and other oil exporting nations to set and maintain production levels has a significant impact on oil and natural gas commodity prices.

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and their allies (collectively, OPEC+), is an intergovernmental organization that seeks to manage the price and supply of oil on the global energy market. Actions taken by OPEC+ members, including those taken alongside other oil exporting nations, have a significant impact on global oil supply and pricing. For example, OPEC+ and certain other oil exporting nations have previously agreed to take measures, including production cuts, to support crude oil prices. In March 2020, members of OPEC+ considered extending and potentially increasing these oil production cuts, however these negotiations were unsuccessful. As a result, Saudi Arabia announced an immediate reduction in export prices and Russia announced that all previously agreed oil production cuts will expire on April 1, 2020. These actions led to an immediate and steep decrease in oil prices. There can be no assurance that OPEC+ members and other oil exporting nations will agree to future production cuts or other actions to support and stabilize oil prices, nor can there be any assurance that they will not further reduce oil prices or increase production. Uncertainty regarding future actions to be taken by OPEC+ members or other oil exporting countries could lead to increased volatility in the price of oil, which could adversely affect our business, future financial condition and results of operations.

Increased ethanol industry penetration by oil and other multinational companies could impact our margins.

We operate in a very competitive environment and compete with other domestic ethanol producers in a relatively fragmented industry. The top four producers account for approximately 41% of the domestic production capacity with production capacity ranging from 958 mmgy to 2,867 mmgy. The remaining ethanol producers consist of smaller entities engaged exclusively in ethanol production and large integrated grain companies that produce ethanol in addition to their base grain businesses. We compete for capital, labor, corn and other resources with these companies. Historically, oil companies, petrochemical refiners and gasoline retailers were not engaged in ethanol production even though they form the primary distribution network for ethanol blended with gasoline. Over the past decade, several oil refiners have acquired ethanol production plants, and at one point accounted for almost 20% of domestic ethanol production, however divestments in 2021

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have brought this closer to 10%. If these companies increase their ethanol plant ownership or additional companies commence production, the need to purchase ethanol from independent producers like us or at pricing that provides us an acceptable margin could diminish and adversely effect on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

Our agribusiness operations are subject to significant government regulations.

Our agribusiness operations are regulated by various government entities that can impose significant costs on our business. Failure to comply could result in additional expenditures, fines or criminal action. Our production levels, markets and grains we merchandise are affected by federal government programs, which include USDA acreage control and price support programs. Government policies such as tariffs, duties, subsidies, import and export restrictions and embargos can also impact our business. Changes in government policies and producer support could impact the type and amount of grains planted, which could affect our ability to buy grain. Export restrictions or tariffs could limit sales opportunities outside of the United States.

Commodities futures trading is subject to extensive regulations.

The futures industry is subject to extensive regulation. Since we use exchange-traded futures contracts as part of our business, we are required to comply with a wide range of requirements imposed by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, National Futures Association and the exchanges on which we trade. These regulatory bodies are responsible for safeguarding the integrity of the futures markets and protecting the interests of market participants. As a market participant, we are subject to regulation concerning trade practices, business conduct, reporting, position limits, record retention, the conduct of our officers and employees, and other matters.

Failure to comply with the laws, rules or regulations applicable to futures trading could have adverse consequences. Such claims could result in fines, settlements or suspended trading privileges, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results.

Our success depends on our ability to manage our growing and changing operations.

Since our formation in 2004, our business has grown significantly in size, products and complexity. This growth places substantial demands on our management, systems, internal controls, and financial and physical resources. If we acquire or develop additional operations, we may need to further develop our financial and managerial controls and reporting systems, and could incur expenses related to hiring additional qualified personnel and expanding our information technology infrastructure. Our ability to manage growth effectively could impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

Replacement technologies could make corn-based ethanol or our process technology obsolete.

Ethanol is used primarily as an octane additive and oxygenate blended with gasoline. Critics of ethanol blends argue that it decreases fuel economy, causes corrosion and damages fuel pumps. Prior to federal restrictions and ethanol mandates, methyl tertiary-butyl ether, or MTBE, was the leading oxygenate. Other oxygenate products could enter the market and prove to be environmentally or economically superior to ethanol. Alternative biofuel alcohols, such as methanol and butanol, could evolve and replace ethanol.

Research is currently underway to develop products and processes that have advantages over ethanol, such as: lower vapor pressure, making it easier to add to gasoline; similar energy content as gasoline, reducing any decrease in fuel economy caused by blending with gasoline; ability to blend at higher concentration levels in standard vehicles; and reduced susceptibility to separation when water is present. Products offering a competitive advantage over ethanol could reduce our ability to generate revenue and profits from ethanol production.

New ethanol process technologies could emerge that require less energy per gallon to produce and result in lower production costs. Our process technologies could become less effective or competitive than competing technologies or obsolete and place us at a competitive disadvantage, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, cash flows and financial position.

We may be required to provide remedies for ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein or corn oil that does not meet the specifications defined in our sales contracts.

If we produce or purchase ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein or corn oil that does not meet the specifications defined in our sales contracts, we may be subject to quality claims. We could be required to refund the purchase price of any non-conforming product or replace the non-conforming product at our expense. Ethanol,

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including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein or corn oil that we purchase or market and subsequently sell to others could result in similar claims if the product does not meet applicable contract specifications, which could have an adverse impact on our profitability.

Business disruptions due to unforeseen operational failures or factors outside of our control could impact our ability to fulfill contractual obligations.

Natural disasters, pandemics, transportation issues, significant track damage resulting from a train derailment or strikes by our transportation providers could delay shipments of raw materials to our plants or deliveries of ethanol, including industrial-grade alcohol, distillers grains, Ultra-High Protein and corn oil to our customers. If we are unable to meet customer demand or contract delivery requirements due to stalled operations caused by business disruptions, we could potentially lose customers.

Shifts in global markets, supply or demand changes, as well as adverse weather conditions, such as inadequate or excessive amounts of rain during the growing season, overly wet conditions, an early freeze or snowy weather during harvest could impact the supply of corn that is needed to produce ethanol. Corn stored in an open pile may be damaged by rain or warm weather before the corn is dried, shipped or moved into a storage structure.

Our business may be adversely impacted by the continued impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.

The outbreak of the coronavirus, or COVID-19, including resurgences and variants of the virus, and which was declared by the World Health Organization to be a pandemic in March 2020, has spread across the globe and continues to impact worldwide economic activity. COVID-19 has created risk on all aspects of our business, including its impact on our employees, customers, vendors, and business partners. There are uncertainties from COVID-19 that continue, and include but are not limited to (1) the health of our workforce, and our ability to meet staffing needs which are vital to our operations; (2) the duration of additional outbreaks; (3) federal, state or local governmental regulations or other actions which could include limitations on our operations or mandating vaccination against COVID-19; (4) the effect on customer demand resulting in a decline in the demand for our products; (5) impacts on our supply chain and potential limitations of supply of our feedstocks, chemicals and other products utilized as well as supply chain impacts on construction equipment, supplies and/or labor; (6) interruptions of our rail and distribution systems and delays in the delivery of our product; and (7) volatility in the credit and financial markets. Specifically, we have experienced demand fluctuations for our products, and rail disruptions. Any of the foregoing may have an adverse impact our business, operations and/or profitability.

We continue to actively manage our response in collaboration with customers, government officials, and business partners and assess potential impacts to our future financial position and operating results, as well as adverse developments in our business. While many restrictions have been lifted, it is not possible for us to predict whether there will be additional government-mandated orders that could affect our business, or how any additional measures could impact our operations. We are unable to predict the overall impact these events will have on our future financial position and operations and it could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and/or profitability.

Our ethanol-related assets may be at greater risk of terrorist attacks, threats of war or actual war, than other possible targets.

Terrorist attacks in the United States, including threats of war or actual war, may adversely affect our operations. A direct attack on our ethanol production plants, or our partnership’s storage facilities, fuel terminals and railcars could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Furthermore, a terrorist attack could have an adverse impact on ethanol prices. Disruption or significant increases in ethanol prices could result in government-imposed price controls.

Our network infrastructure, enterprise applications and internal technology systems could be damaged or otherwise fail and disrupt business activities.

Our network infrastructure, enterprise applications and internal technology systems are instrumental to the day-to-day operations of our business. Numerous factors outside of our control, including earthquakes, floods, lightning, tornados, fire, power loss, telecommunication failures, computer viruses, physical or electronic vandalism or similar disruptions could result in system failures, interruptions or loss of critical data and prevent us from fulfilling customer orders. We cannot provide assurance that our backup systems are sufficient to mitigate hardware or software failures, which could result in business disruptions that negatively impact our operating results and damage our reputation.

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We could be adversely affected by cyber-attacks, data security breaches and significant information technology systems interruptions.

We rely on network infrastructure and enterprise applications, and internal technology systems for operational, marketing support and sales, and product development activities. The hardware and software systems related to such activities are subject to damage from earthquakes, floods, lightning, tornados, fire, power loss, telecommunication failures, cyber-attacks and other similar events. They are also subject to acts such as computer viruses, physical or electronic vandalism or other similar disruptions that could cause system interruptions and loss of critical data, and could prevent us from fulfilling customers’ orders. The Company and its vendors have experienced diverse cyber-attacks, with minimal consequences on our business to date. As examples, we have experienced attempts to gain access to systems, denial of service attacks, attempted malware infections, account takeovers, scanning activity and phishing emails. Attacks can originate from external criminals, terrorists, nation states or internal actors. We will continue to dedicate resources and incur expenses to maintain and update on an ongoing basis the systems and processes that are designed to mitigate the information security risks we face and protect the security of our computer systems, software, networks and other technology assets against attempts by unauthorized parties to obtain access to confidential information, disrupt or degrade service or cause other damage. Despite the implementation of cybersecurity measures (including access controls, data encryption, vulnerability assessments, employee training, continuous monitoring, and maintenance of backup and protective systems), our information technology systems may still be vulnerable to cybersecurity threats and other electronic security breaches. While we have taken reasonable efforts to protect ourselves, and to date, we have not experienced any material losses related to cyber-attacks, we cannot assure our shareholders that any of our security measures would be sufficient in the future. Any event that causes failures or interruption in such hardware or software systems could result in disruption of our business operations, have a negative impact on our operating results, and damage our reputation, which could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operation, cash flows.

We may not be able to hire and retain qualified personnel to operate our facilities.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain competent employees. Qualified employees, including but not limited to finance and accounting, managers, engineers, merchandisers, and other personnel must be hired for each of our locations and our corporate office. If we are unable to hire and retain productive, skilled personnel, we may not be able to maximize production, optimize plant operations or execute our business strategy.

Compliance with and changes in tax laws could adversely affect our performance.

We are subject to extensive tax liabilities imposed by multiple jurisdictions, including income taxes, indirect taxes (excise/duty, sales/use, gross receipts, and value-added taxes), payroll taxes, franchise taxes, withholding taxes, and ad valorem taxes. New tax laws and regulations and changes in existing tax laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed that could result in increased expenditures for tax liabilities in the future. Many of these liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authority. Subsequent changes to our tax liabilities as a result of these audits may subject us to interest and penalties.

Federal, state and local jurisdictions may challenge our tax return positions.

The positions taken in our federal and state tax return filings require significant judgments, use of estimates and the interpretation and application of complex tax laws. Significant judgment is also required in assessing the timing and amounts of deductible and taxable items. Despite management’s belief that our tax return positions are fully supportable, certain positions may be successfully challenged by federal, state and local jurisdictions.

Financial performance of our equity method investments are subject to risks beyond our control and can vary substantially from period to period.

The company invests in certain limited liability companies, which are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. This means that the company’s share of net income or loss in the investee increases or decreases, as applicable, the carrying value of the investment. By operating a business through this arrangement, we do not have control over operating decisions as we would if we owned the business outright. Specifically, we cannot act on major business initiatives without the consent of the other investors.